Gaelic League poster promoting the idea of a proud independent Eire, Frances Georgiana Chenevix Trench, 1913. Image in public domain.
The Easter Rising in Dublin comes to an end with the surrender of the ringleaders following relentless British artillery bombardments. 450 people – many of them civilians – die during the rebellion, with over 2,500 wounded. 3,500 people are arrested, 171 of whom are court martialled. Fifteen rebel leaders are executed in the following days, much to the country’s outrage. Nationalism sweeps over the land in the coming years, fuelling the War of Independence and the Civil War and the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The Easter Rising – Ireland in World War 1
Casualties in the Battle of Verdun now number 133,000 French and 120,000 Germans
Albert Leslie Singleton was born in 1887, the youngest of the six children of Thomas and Margaret Singleton. The family owned and ran a store and butchery at Lower Lewis Ponds from 1872 until 1920. Because it was a substantial brick structure, the building still survives, but is now called Wildwood Cottage. The rest of the old 19th century village of Lower Lewis Ponds has disappeared.
Despite his father having been a board member of the local school at Ophir, Albert was educated in Sydney at Stanmore and Petersham Public Schools. Probably Albert boarded with his aunt Cecilia Brady, who lived in Newtown and Petersham during the years Albert was at school. His Brady cousins, Reg and Vic, would have gone to the same schools.
In 1907 his father died, and Albert and his older brother Arthur ran the store. The district of Lewis Ponds was in decline as people moved away from the old gold fields. Albert left in 1913 to make his own way in the world, working firstly in Murrurundi and then in Gundagai as head grocer for George F. Grill’s Railway Store. He had prior experience from the family store.
With the awful news from Gallipoli through 1915, there was a surge of volunteers enlisting in the AIF. So on 3 September 1915, Albert Singleton (4316) with his mate from Gundagai, Leo Boyton (4150), enlisted in the Army at Cootamundra. They joined the 1st Battalion, 13th Reinforcement as privates.
On 20 December 1915, (by this time they were three musketeers – Private Jack Edward Smith (4311) from Taree had joined them) Albert, Leo and Jack embarked upon HMAT Aeneas for Egypt.
In Egypt on 16 February 1916, they were allotted to and joined the 54th Battalion of the Australian 5th Division at Tel-el-Kebir near Cairo. Of the Battalion’s 1,023 soldiers, 500 were raw reinforcements like Albert, Leo and Jack. Here Albert became best friends with another young man from the Orange district, Private Charlie Campbell (3482), who had come out as a reinforcement on a different ship, but who was now also in the 54th Battalion.
The 5th Division had been assigned to take over defence of a section of the Suez Canal. Commanding officer Major General McCay decided to turn this into a training exercise and on 28 March 1916 ordered the entire Division to march the 65 kilometres through the desert to Moascar in full battle kit in 40 degree heat. Many of the soldiers suffered heat exhaustion, and in the evening, ambulance wagons and camels collected these soldiers from the desert where they had collapsed.
On 19 June 1916 the 54th Battalion embarked from Alexandria on the Caledonian, to join the British Expeditionary Forces in France, arriving at Marseilles on 29 June. They were then marched up to the front line at Fleurbaix.
Without any time to acquaint themselves with their surroundings, the Battalions of the 5th Division were assigned to attack the fortified German lines. This action is now known as the Battle of Fromelles. (Fleurbaix and Fromelles are 5km apart, the former behind the British lines and the latter behind German lines). They were assembled to attack in four waves at five minute intervals. The first wave was to take the first German trench and clear it of the enemy. Subsequent waves of attackers were to leap-frog the first trench and take second and third German support trenches that had been identified from aerial reconnaissance.
So rushed had been the planning of the attack, that there were not enough steel helmets for the third and fourth waves, who were forced to attack in their felt slouch hats.
A seven-hour long artillery bombardment of the German lines began at 11am on 19 July. The Germans, however, were aware of the troops massing in the trenches opposite, preparing to attack, and their artillery soon found their range and caused significant casualties amongst the waiting Australians.
At 5.45pm the order to attack was issued and the 54th Battalion – Albert and his mates – “hopped the bags” (went over the top).
They achieved their objectives, but found that the second and third German support trenches didn’t exist – they were shallow water-filled ditches providing them little cover from German rifles and machine guns. Nonetheless, they attempted to defend these ditches, digging into the gluey Flanders clay and filling sand bags from which to construct a parapet. Night fell at around 9pm.
At 11.45 pm the Germans launched a concerted counter-attack. It was at this time, at around midnight of 19 July or early in the morning of 20 July 1916, that Albert was killed. He was shot through the head. One can’t help but suspect he was one of those without a helmet. He was 28 years old.
As morning broke on 20 July, at 7.50am the Battalion was ordered to retreat. Albert’s body was left behind in the German lines, and was probably one of those Australian soldiers buried by the Germans in the mass graves at Fromelles. He has no known grave.
His mates Charlie Campbell and Jack Smith were wounded the same evening. The 54th Battalion had suffered 540 casualties including 155 deaths.
When Albert was killed his sister, Nurse Lilly Singleton, made enquiries about the manner of his death and where he was buried. She wrote to his mate, Private Leo Boyton, who told her what he knew.
A year later in 1917, the Australian Red Cross Wounded and Missing Enquiry Bureau began looking into Albert’s death and burial. They collected eye-witness accounts from six soldiers in the 54th who had seen his death – Lance Corporal Horace Balcomb and Privates Charles Campbell, Leo Boyton, Jack Smith, R.W. Fairweather and R.J. Eyles.
Private Charlie Campbell gives the best description of Albert: “He was of slight build and very fair, with light curly hair and bald on the top. He was about 5ft 10 inches in height and 26 or 27 years of age. He had very neat ways, rather sharp features.” One of the others stated he had brown eyes, but his enlistment papers say blue. Charlie later told his Sergeant, Sgt S. Hill, that he had lost his best friend at Fleurbaix – Albert Singleton.
Albert Leslie Singleton is commemorated on St Joseph’s Church Orange Honour Roll, and the family headstone in Orange Cemetery. His name appears on the World War I Roll of Honour on the southern face of the Orange Cenotaph, on panel number 159 on the Roll of Honour at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra and on panel number 11, V.C. Corner of the Australian Cemetery at Fromelles in France.
In 1923 the Anzac Memorial Avenue of trees was planted along Bathurst Road in Orange, and a tree was planted in honour of Private Singleton. It was donated by Alderman William Ernest Bouffler.
In order to determine if one of the bodies recovered from the mass graves at Fromelles is that of Albert, DNA samples from the dead soldier need to be matched to samples of DNA from Albert’s relatives. Both mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA are needed. So far genealogical research has located mitochondrial DNA from relatives in Tasmania, but no living person having the Singleton Y chromosome has been located here in Australia. Attempts are being made to trace related Singletons in the UK who might be able to help.
* Rob Cunneen, 2016
Albert Leslie Singleton.jpg Albert Leslie Singleton memorial plaque, Orange Cemetery. Image courtesy Orange Cemetery.
Emaciated Indian forces captured by Turkish forces following the siege of Kut, Mesopotamia, April 1916. Image in public domain.
Negotiations break down between the besieged Major General Charles Townshend and Turkish General Kahlil Pasha at Kut-al-Amara. Townshend destroys his guns and ammunition and surrenders, ending the 147 day long siege. 13,000 British troops, now on the verge of starvation, are taken prisoner and interned at Shumran. The surrender marks the largest single surrender of troops in British history to date and is later described by British historian James Morris as “the most abject capitulation in Britain’s military history”. Almost 6,000 men die during the siege or later in captivity. Prisoners of the Turks
With the surrender of Kut the operations of the Mesopotamian Half Flight of the Australian Flying Corps draw to a close
General Jacob Louis Van Deventer’s 1,200 troops of the South African Mounted Brigade arrive in Kondai Irangi. They have marched 150 miles from Arusha, a journey that takes over three weeks. Most of them are suffering from malaria and dysentery and pose little threat to German Major Georg Kraut’s 4,000 troops entrenched in the hills to the south of the town.
Members of the Mesopotamian Half Flight with a Royal Aircraft Factory BE2C aircraft used by the Australian Flying Corps to supply the Army garrison at Kut-al-Amara, 1916. Image courtesy Australian War Memorial.
Captain Thomas Edward Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) and two other British officers meet in secret with Turkish General Kahlil Pasha in a last ditch attempt to negotiate the escape of British troops under siege at Kut-al-Amara in Mesopotamia. British attempt to bargain with Turks over Kut
The Leader reports on the rapid promotion of Harold Edward Townsend through the ranks from sapper to 2nd lieutenant to 1st lieutenant and now, captain. Captain Townsend would later be mentioned three times in despatches and be awarded the Military Cross for distinguished and meritorious services. A Conspicuous Orange Soldier
Major General Charles Townshend begins negotiations for surrender of the besieged British garrison at Kut-al-Amara. He sends a letter to the Turkish General Kahlil Pasha offering £1 million and requesting a six-day armistice for the delivery of food and supplies.
In a concerted effort to quell the Easter Uprising in Dublin British gunboats open fire on Labour Party headquarters, killing many civilians.
By all accounts Herbert Edward Kidd enjoyed the nomadic life; his obituary in the Leader claimed: “He commenced his roving at an early age [and] seldom remained in any one centre for more than a few months”.*
Born in Lucknow in 1882, Herbert was the fourth of five children of blacksmith William Kidd and his wife Mary (nee Hennessey). Herbert enlisted for war service in April 1916 and entered Dubbo training camp. In June he was transferred to Liverpool and in July was assigned as a gunner to the 1st Heavy Trench Mortar Battery.
Herbert embarked for overseas duty in September 1916, arriving in Plymouth in early November. He served initially in England; in March 1917 he joined the 4th Division Ammunition Column in France.
Gunner Kidd was hospitalised on several occasions during his service. He was transferred to England in January 1918 and returned to Australia in June. He was discharged from the AIF in October 1918 due to ill-health.
In 1918 Herbert married Mary Follington in Sydney. Their marriage lasted barely a year; Herbert became a widower following Mary’s death in 1919.
On New Year’s Eve in 1928 Herbert was crossing Summer Street in Orange when he was struck by a car. He was taken to hospital suffering a fractured skull and several broken bones. Herbert passed away from his injuries on 30 January 1929, aged 46. He is buried in Orange Cemetery.
Returned soldiers dinner, Town Hall, Sydney, Anzac Day 1916. Image courtesy State Library of NSW.
April 25 is officially declared as Anzac Day. Throughout the Commonwealth large crowds of people attend commemorative services to mark the first anniversary of the Gallipoli landing.
In London 1,300 Australian and 700 New Zealand troops receive a rousing reception as they march through the streets to Westminster Abbey where a service is held in honour of their contribution to the Gallipoli campaign
In Sydney up to 100,000 people attend a memorial service in the Sydney Domain. Returned soldiers are guests of honour at a dinner held at the Town Hall.
In Orange shops and local businesses close between 12 and 2pm so that people can attend a street procession and a combined memorial service at the Australian Hall
In Egypt William Dalton Lycett of the 4th Field Ambulance records in his diary:
Reveille 5 a.m. Anniversary of Gallipoli landing. On parade 6 a.m., orders, roll call and gargle. Ribbons given out for day by divisional orders to those entitled. Red for landing, blue for campaign. I received both. Could not attend Memorial Service at 6.30 a.m. Very sorry. Very hot day again. On duty 2 p.m., dressings, foments, med. etc., tea for patients 5 p.m. Old members of corps held dinner in honor of day, at 6.30 p.m. Old officers present, splendid dinner, very nice evening, toasts, speeches etc. O.C. said would be leaving for France within 2 weeks. Closed 10 p.m., lights out 10.15.
Elise Neumann, the wife of Manildra doctor Eugene Neumann, pens a commemorative poem that appears in the Molong Express. [When WWI began the German-born Neumanns were subjected to many assaults on their character and reputation, despite becoming British subjects in 1905]. Anzac Day
The wings of night enwrapt the sleeping morn,
And ghostly ships in misty clouds asway
Upon the restless sea, straining like hounds in leash,
To rush the dawn which gave us Anzac Day.
“Reveille” calls the taut young forms from sleep,
The chaplain prays “Blessed God be with you,” then—
In single file adown the gangways creep,
Brothers, sweethearts, sons—Australia’s men.
With hearts afire they faced the glowing dawn,
And stormed the rugged heights as would wild deer,
To rout the lurking foe from hidden trench,
For in their splendid youth they knew not fear.
They blazed the trail, their glorious Day was done,
At dusk within the grave from fret of war they lay,
Their shrouds the golden glory of the sun,
Immortal heroes of Australia’s Anzac Day.
British snipers assume position behind empty beer barrels, Dublin, 1916. Image in public domain.
The Easter Rising begins as more than 1,000 armed republicans attempt to take control of Dublin. Their intention is to destroy British rule and create an Irish Republic. The rebellion continues until 29 April and results in almost 500 deaths.
British naval aeroplanes continue their raid on German targets along the Belgian coastline
The paddle steamer SS Julnar attempts to pass undetected past Turkish positions on the Tigris River to deliver 270 tons of supplies to the besieged garrison at Kut-al-Amara in Mesopotamia. The vessel is only 6km from the fort when its rudder is snared by steel cables stretched across the river. Most of the crew are wounded or killed by Turkish fire; the survivors are taken prisoner. As one officer of the relief force later observed: “from that moment, Kut was doomed.” The Last Voyage of the SS Julnar
Ottoman troops at Katia. Image courtesy Library of Congress.
Ottoman Forces under the command of German General Kress von Kressenstein attack British forces stationed at Katia oasis in the Sinai, 40 km east of the Suez Canal. The 5th Mounted Brigade sustains 500 casualties; the Ottoman force withdraws to the east. The Sinai Campaign
British naval aeroplanes raid the German aerodrome at Mariakerke near Ostend in Belgium
Major General Charles Townshend cables Commander-in-Chief of British and Indian Forces in Mesopotamia, General Sir Percy Lake, from the besieged garrison at Kut-al-Amara proposing that that a substantial bribe be offered to the Turks to allow a retreat to Basra. He says:
The Turks have no money to pay for my force in captivity. The force would all perish from weakness or be shot by the Arabs if they had to march to Baghdad, and the Turks have no ships to carry us there. Let the parole be given, not to fight the Turks only. During negotiations no doubt the Turks would permit of your sending up ships with food. The men will be so weak in 3 or 4 days’ time that they will be incapable of all exertion, and the stenches in Kut are such that I am afraid pestilence may break out any time. Money might easily settle the question of getting us off without parole being given and it would be a great thing…Your decisions must reach me if you act quickly. It would take me three days to destroy the guns and ammo which I should have to do before I came away if you negotiate.