The Western Frontier force attacks an encampment of 6,000 Senussi at Halazin in Egypt. The Brits sustain 312 casualties, including 21 dead; Senussi casualties number 700, including 200 dead. The Western Frontier
Austrian forces occupy Podgoritza in Montenegro and Scutari in Albania
Oswald Cecil Jeffrey Baylis was killed in action on 2 May 1915; seven days after “D” Company, 2nd Battalion AIF, his unit, landed at what became known as Anzac Cove on the Gallipoli Peninsula.
Oswald Baylis was born in Orange on 5 November 1890 to John Godfrey Baylis and Isabella Sarah Baylis (nee Frost). He had two siblings, Augustus and Edith (who later married Arthur Sara). He attended Orange East Public School and according to newspapers of the day was an employee of the NSW Railways.
Although his time had expired, Oswald Baylis had already been part of the 3rd A.I.R. based at Lithgow when he enlisted in Sydney on 22 August 1914. He embarked on HMAT Suffolk A23 on 18 October 1914 and landed in Egypt on 8 December.
D Company formed part of the second and third wave of landings on the Gallipoli Peninsula. Thirty one officers and 937 other men carrying 70 pound back packs scrambled down rope ladders and packed, like sardines, into the landing craft which slowly make their way to the beach. Disembarking under heavy fire, they were greeted with the carnage of the dead and wounded of 3rd Battalion lying nearby. For seven days, Baylis, along with others of his ilk, endured the relentless gun fire and shelling in the trenches of Anzac Cove inflicted by Turkish Forces pushing back the upward advance.
His mother, now a widow, was notified of his death, but it was not until the end of 1917 that she received his personal effects which comprised of a scarf, cards, gift tin, wrist strap and an eye bandage. In 1967 Oswald’s nephew, Arthur Keith Sara, who saw service in WWII as member of the 2nd AIF, claimed his medals: the British Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal. He stated he would be very proud to have them.
Oswald Cecil Jeffrey Baylis is remembered on Panel 16 of the Lone Pine Memorial at Gallipoli, Orange East Public School Honour Roll and in Newman Park Orange, where his name appears on a plaque commemorating former Orange East Public School students who were killed in action.
Ottoman Sixth Army field headquarters Mesopotamia, 1916. Image in public domain.
Day 530 of the war
British and Turkish forces in Mesopotamia agree on a six hour armistice to remove the wounded and recover and bury the dead. The Tigris River rises over two metres in 48 hours; the relief effort is hampered by floods.
The Romanian Government begins negotiations with Russia with a view to military assistance
Austrian forces occupy Antivari and Dulcigno in Montenegro, and Berat in Albania
Russian torpedo boats continue to wreak havoc in the Black Sea, sinking a further 40 sailing vessels
Robert Stanley Trethewey was born in Orange N.S.W. in 1888 – the third child of nine born to Robert and Bessie Trethewey. He joined the 1st A.I.F. on 22 August 1914 at Roseberry in N.S.W. at the age of 26 years and one month. His listed his occupation as labourer on his attestation papers, and his religion as Wesleyan. His next of kin was shown as Robert Trethewey (father), Race Course Road Orange N.S.W. At the time of enlisting he had been a member of the militia for over five years – 4 ½ years with the 41st Infantry Battalion and one year with the 9th Light Horse Regiment. He was 5 foot 8 inches tall with dark complexion dark hair and brown eyes.
Robert joined the No1 Light Horse Regiment on 22 August 1914. Training was conducted at Roseberry Park from late August until October 1914. On 20 October 1914 Robert embarked H.M.A.T. Star of Victoria at Sydney for overseas service.
While still training in the Egyptian desert in late 1914 the First Australian Division and the New Zealand/Australian Division (which later included the 1st Light Horse Brigade) were reformed into the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps – ANZACs.
As mounted troops, the Light Horse were considered to be unsuitable for work at Gallipoli. The mounted troops volunteered to operate as infantry and thus the 1st Light Horse were sent to Gallipoli landing on 12 May 1915. Only once was the regiment used for offensive operations which occurred on the morning of 7 August 1915 with an attack on the Turkish position known as “The Cheeseboard”. The tragic result of this action was some 147 casualties from the 200 men involved in the charge. For the balance of the time the 1st Light Horse remained at Gallipoli the unit played a defensive role.
There is a gap in Robert Stanley Trethewey’s service record from 22 August 1914 to 15 July 1915. The entry for 15 July 1915 reads “Re-joined unit Gallipoli”. Written in red ink at a later date is “casualty not stated – re-joined unit 15/7/1915”. It may be assumed that in the confusion at Gallipoli and the large number of casualties suffered the recording of the dead and wounded and the evacuation of the wounded would have been difficult to say the least – or then again he could have joined his unit late from other duties in Egypt. This could explain the gap in Robert’s service record and the later addition of the red ink correction entry.
The next entry in Robert’s service record is dated 29 December 1915 when he disembarks in Alexandria from the ship Valsova. From this point the record is fairly comprehensive. On returning from Gallipoli the 1st Light Horse became part of the Western Frontier Force and the unit was reformed and re-equipped. The reorganisation of the Light Horse led to the formation of the ANZAC Mounted Division to which the 1st Light Horse Regiment became a foundation member.
For the first five months of 1916 the 1st Light Horse was deployed through the Nile River Valley to defend the Egyptian economic centre from interruption by the Senussi infiltrating from the Silva Oasis. On 14 May 1916 the 1st Light Horse joined the parent Brigade (1st Light Horse Brigade) which was taking part in the defence of the Suez Canal. They moved to the Romani region to bolster the defence of that region.
The regiment took part in the Battle of Romani from 4-6 August – the Battle of Katia and then Bir el Abd on 9 August 1916. All of these actions led to the defeat of the Ottoman Canal Expeditionary Force and its retreat to Bir el Mazar. Over the next few months the regiment took part in the allied advance over the Sinai leading to the fall of Bir el Mazar then El Arish and Bir el Magdhala and finally Rafa in January 1917.
The 1st Light Horse protected the rail line in Palestine for the first months of 1917. They missed the First Battle of Gaza but were back at the front by 6 April and took part in the Second and Third Battles of Gaza on 19 April 1917.
The regiment took part in the Battle of Beersheba and follow up actions lasting to January 1918. After the fall of Jerusalem the 1st Light Horse moved to the Jordan Valley and took part in operations in this region including the taking of Jericho and the attack on Amman 27 March – 2 April 1918 and the Es Salt raid 30 April to 4 May. The regiment also took part in the action to repel the German Asien Corps attack at Abu Tellul on 14 July 1918.
In Amman at the opening of the final allied offensive on 19 September 1918 the 1st Light Horse Regiment took part in the invasion of the Moab Hills for the 3rd time. This time Amman was captured and finally the Ottomans called for an armistice on the 30 October 1918.
Robert Stanley Trethewey is commemorated on the Methodist Church Orange Honour Roll and the Ancient Order of Foresters Orange Roll of Honor.
In 1923 the Anzac Memorial Avenue of trees was planted along Bathurst Road to commemorate fallen WWI soldiers. A tree was planted in honour of “Pte RS Trethewey”; it was donated by Ancient Order of Foresters Orange. Very few of the trees are still standing today.
The British relief force for Kut-al-Amara launches an attack on Turkish positions at Um-el-Hanna, 23 miles from Kut-al-Amara. The Brits are overcome by the atrocious weather and the mud; their operation fails. They sustain 2,800 casualties, compared to the Turks’ 500.
The Dutch cargo vessel Apollo strikes a mine from the German submarine SM UC-10 in the North Sea. The Apollo sinks one nautical mile south west of the Galloper Bank Lightship; three people perish.
The Leader urges the men of Orange to enlist. They Say
Not the day after.
Don’t marry to dodge your duty.
That means hiding behind your wife’s skirts.
Find your manhood to-morrow, and be strong and sincere.
Posterity and civilisation will bless you for your good work.
General Sir Percy Lake succeeds General Sir John Nixon as Commander-in-Chief of British and Indian Forces in Mesopotamia
Leutnant Theodor Mallinckrodt takes the world’s first all-metal aircraft, the Junkers J1 for its only known “high performance” flight test, which consists of a 7 km course, at varying altitudes from 200–300 metres. Mallinckrodt reaches a top speed of 170 km/h.
Allied warships bombard Porto Lagos in Bulgaria
Anglo-French forces occupy Ebolowa in the southern Cameroons
German Gefreiter (Private) Paul Arnold conducts the second flight of the world’s first all-metal aircraft, the Junkers J1, reaching an altitude of only 80 metres following a 200 metre takeoff run. The aircraft’s variable incidence stabilizer is recalibrated and Leutnant Theodor Mallinckrodt makes a second flight, this time reaching an altitude of 900 metres
The Austro-Hungarian army claims a complete victory in Galicia and Bukovina
Germans evacuate the southern Cameroons, retiring into Spanish territory
When Gilbert Hill enlisted in January 1916 he was the only surviving son of Thomas Baird and Selina (Lena) Hill. Eric, their youngest, died of dysentery at nine months of age, and Herbert, their eldest, had died of appendicitis in 1913, aged just 17.
Gilbert was educated at Orange Public School, where he served three years in Senior Cadets and two years in the Militia. In August 1914 he was appointed as a porter at Orange Railway Station. He enlisted five months later, aged 18, though he claimed to be 21 on his attestation papers.
Gilbert embarked in April 1916 aboard HMAT Nestor, a private in the 30th Battalion, 6th Reinforcement. He served for three years in England and on the Western Front. He was hospitalised on two occasions with trench foot, which saw him transferred to hospital in England, followed by lengthy periods of furlough to enable his recovery.
In August 1918 Gilbert sustained a gunshot wound to the right arm. He was again evacuated to hospital in England, and embarked for return to Australia early in the new year. Gilbert arrived in Sydney in February 1919 and was discharged from the AIF in April.
Gilbert returned to Orange and became an orchardist. Like his father Tom, Gilbert excelled at rifle shooting; he would regularly travel to Sydney and interstate to compete. In 1920 he won the King’s Cup and King’s Prize in Brisbane, where he competed against a British team. In the final round he shot seven consecutive bull’s eyes from a distance of 900 yards.
In February 1923 Gilbert married Barbara Fitzgerald; the couple had four children – Isabel, John (Jack), Evelyn and Gerald. Gilbert passed away in May 1959, and now, many years later, his descendants still live at the property opposite the Orange Rifle Range.
Gilbert is commemorated on Orange High School Roll of Honour and St John’s Presbyterian Church Orange Honour Roll.